In almost all the underground projects of oil and gas or deep energy extraction, and carbon capture and storage (CCS), the wellbore integrity is an important factor since it is subjected to a range of geo-environmental conditions in deep underground. Therefore, the type of cement used in the wellbore plays a significant role in the long-term existence of those projects. To date, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has commonly used as the well-cement in the above-mentioned underground projects. Nevertheless, recent studies have confirmed that geopolymer cement shows more desirable characteristics compared to OPC in the extreme well-bore environments of varying down-hole pressures, temperatures, a high concentration of salinity, acid and CO2 compared to geopolymer cement.

However, the existence of some drawbacks of recently developed geopolymers such as the need of heat curing, delay in setting time, low early strength gain, need of high concentrated alkaline solutions and few negative issues related with alkaline silicates (high cost, inflated energy and greenhouse gas emission during the production etc.) make it difficult to use in field conditions. Therefore, in order to address these issues, it is important to develop a novel cementitious material, which favours economic, less energy-intensive and environmentally friendly characteristics. In this study, the waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag and crushed glass will be used as binder materials to develop an alkali-activated waste-based cement mainly focusing on the recently investigated knowledge of geopolymer technology.